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How does Eco Car Phase II Promote Thailand Automotive Industry, Environment and Safety Drive?

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Written by
Mr. Tanawat Boonpradith
Thailand Automotive Institute

    According to the policy of the government to support environment-friendly, economic and safe automotive production, the Board of Investment of Thailand (BOI) and other related agencies launched the promotion policy for automotive manufacturing of ECO Car Phase I, which has been produced since 2010 until now. This is benefit to automotive industry as there is increasing in production for domestic sale and export. Moreover, ECO Car Phase I – domestic sale is a part to improve Thai’s quality of life such as riding environment-friendly, economic and safe vehicle.

    As the government realizes and commences on the measure that conforms to technology direction as well as enhances the policy, continuously, the ECO Car Phase II has been introduced. There are additional specifications in engineering for environment-friendly, economic and safe vehicle; including more investment. This ECO Car Phase II shall be a part to precipitate Thailand automotive industry into development and growth, constantly. This article will reveal specifications in engineering of ECO Car Phase II and specifications that differ from ECO Car Phase I. As a result, you will comprehend the development of ECO Car Phase II in term of engineering specifications. 

    Initially, I would like to introduce the engineering specifications of ECO Car Phase II compared with ECO Car Phase I as shown in the table below

    From the above table, it indicates that most of the engineering specifications in ECO Car Phase II are improved from the ECO Car Phase I and I would like to explain in detail as following as:

1. Fuel consumption rate must not less than 4.3L/100 km (23.25 km/L)
    There is changing for fuel consumption rate from 5 L/100 km (20.00km/L) in ECO Car Phase I into 4.3L/100 km (23.25 km/L) for ECO Car Phase II. This reduces fuel consumption that is beneficial for rider and decrease imported fuel; therefore, “ECO Car” is an alternative.


2. Meet the emission standard of Euro 5
    Emission standard of Thailand has used the same standard of Europe as recognized as Euro standard, which is more intensive, increasingly. At present, we use Euro 4 as the standard for small car. For ECO Car Phase II, the emission standard is categorized as Euro 5 which is more rigorous than Euro 4 for 1 level. ECO Car Phase I was specified to use Euro 4 while the emission standard at that time was used Euro 3. This increasing degree of standard reduced emission rate, gave better environment and caused good health for people.


    For the emission test, the tested vehicle will be in the testing room with controlled conditions such as temperature, wind, etc. It will run on chassis dynamometer or roller before measuring the emission rate form muffler. This rate will be analyzed and converted into g/km. The driving is conducted by EU NEDC mode and will be compared with specific criteria. The result must not over the specification. 

Driving mode is also use EU NEDC as the picture below

3. Carbon dioxide (CO2) emission must not over 100 g/km
    Although Carbon dioxide is not pollutant, it causes “Global Warming” or the greenhouse effect. Some may not know what it is. Allow me to explain it, briefly.
Greenhouse effect is circumstance of high temperature on Earth that caused from the sunlight in infrared range that is re-radiated and absorbed by molecules of Carbon dioxide (CO2) and other substances; for example, steam, Methane (CH4), Chlorofluorocarbon (CFCs), Nitrous oxide (N2O), etc. in the air. As a result, these molecules gain and transfer energy to one another those cause higher temperature in the air. 

    Transferring the energy and the long wave range of these molecules in the air are caused constant vibration and when our skin is exposed to this, we feel the heat.

    When the Earth is facing the higher temperature, there are many impacts, for instance, higher sea level from the melting of glacier and using more air-conditioner that caused higher electric energy consumption.

    By driving vehicle with lesser CO2 emission than specification in ECO Car Phase I; 100 g/km, will save us and the world.

4. Pass safety standard from impact UN/ECE 94 and UN/ECE 95
    This specification is similar to ECO Car Phase I. The standard of UN/ECE 94 and UN/ECE 95 are a part of Passive Safety standard that is used to protect passenger from the accident. Once the ECO Car passes the test as this standard, there is safety. The following is the detail of this standard


    4.1 UN/ECE 94 (Protection of the occupants in the event of a frontal collision) 
It is the front impact testing to prove if the vehicle is safe and able to protect passenger from the front impact. There are 2 major tests: 100% Front Impact and 40% offset Impact. However, as UN/ECE 94 standard, there is only 40% offset Impact test.
The 40% offset Impact will simulate from the real circumstance by analyzing based on the impact of bone structure and using a dummy.

Offset Impact Test Method
The testing consists of following parts
1. Haul engine by the engine of tested vehicle or other tools
2. Tested vehicle needs to collide with a wall by offset impact and 40% Front Impact
3. No additional speed or haul while colliding
4. Colliding speed is equal to 56 Km/h

Offset Impact Test Criteria
The summary of Injury Criteria for offset impact with 40% Front Impact is
1. Head Performance Criteria (HPC) must not over 1,000 and Head Acceleration must not over 80 g with consecutive period of 3 milliseconds
2. Neck Injury Criteria must not over than specific rate
3. Neck Bending Moment, area around Y axis must not over 57 Nm
4. Thorax compression criterion (ThCC) must not over 50 mm
5. Viscous criterion (V x C) value must not over 1.0 m/s
6. Femur force criterion must not over than specific rate
7. Tibia compression force criterion (TCFC) must not over 8 kN
8. Tibia index (TI) is measured from the tallest and lowest points which must not over 1.3 in each position
9. Sliding knee joints must not over 15 mm
10. Steering movement, during the impact, there is movement of steering and impacts to the dummy which means it can cause danger to the driver. Thus, the movement must not higher than 80 mm, vertically and moving backward over 100 mm, horizontally
11. No door is opened during testing
12. The leakage of fuel and injection system can occur but must not over 30 g per minute
13. After the impact, at least one door must be able to shut
14. Release Restraint system with not over 60 N of force
15. Able to take the dummy out of the tested vehicle

    4.2 UN/ECE 95 (Protection of the Occupants in the event of a Lateral Collision) 
This standard is about side impact testing to test the safety of vehicle and protect passenger from the side impact.

Side impact testing method
It consists of
1. Deformable Barrier must be upright with tested vehicle
2. Must have a device to protect the repeated impact
3. Deformable Barrier has to move to hit the tested vehicle with the speed at 50 km/hr

Side Impact Summary ECE Regulation
Scopes of consideration based on this standard are 
1. Head Performance Criteria (HPC) must not over 1,000
2. Rib Deflection Criteria must not over 42 mm
3. Soft Tissue Criterion (VC) must not over 1.0 m/sec
4. Forcing on pubis must not over 6 kN
5. Forcing on stomach must not over 2.5 kN
6. The leakage of fuel and injection system can occur but must not over 30 g per minute
7. No door is opened during testing
8. Able to release the Protection System
9. Able to take the dummy out of the tested vehicle
10. No distortion of interior equipment that is sharp and risk for any danger

5. Specification of Braking Standard of UN ECE R13H
    The braking standard is Active Safety that protects the accident. It is required for the passenger car. As specifications, there are measurements the capability of braking in cold and hot conditions, Parking Brake function as well as ABS system.


    It is clearly that the engineering specifications in ECO Car Phase II are more intensive than ECO Car Phase I. This should increase more economy, environment-friendly and safety to vehicle. Moreover, there is also specification for automotive manufacturers in ECO Car Phase II to have the process of Machining in major engine parts at least 4C out of 5C. This is also investment promotion. I hope that this ECO Car Phase II would be a part that moving forwards the growth of Thailand automotive industry. 




 
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